Subjetivaciones farmacológicas: Déficit atencional, psicoestimulantes y prácticas escolares en dos colegios de Santiago, Chile

Sebastian Rojas Navarro, Patricio Rojas

Resumen

Este artículo propone un abordaje semiótico-material para pensar con el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención/Hiperactividad (TDAH) y el uso de psicoestimulantes. A partir de una etnografía de las prácticas acontecidas en dos colegios de Santiago, sostenemos que una aproximación prágmatica, relacional y posthumanista abre al análisis otros procesos y dinámicas respecto a como niños y niñas diagnósticadas, medicamentos, compañeras, profesores y otros actores humanos y no-humanos interactuan y se co-afectan, enactando versiones singulares del diagnóstico y de los efectos de la medicación. Así, proponemos resituar la discusión para evitar binarismos que han coactado la reflexión respecto a cómo niños y niñas afectan y son afectados por los saberes biomédicos y las prácticas “psi”. Particularmente, cuestionamos que subjetividad y psicofármacos son esencialmente agentes antagónicos, ya que en la práctica ambos co-existen, se co-afectan, y pueden producir elementos creativos y emergentes, tal como nuestro análisis de las notas de campo y relatos etnográficos revela.

Palabras clave

TDAH; Niñas y niños; Psicoestimulantes; Agencia; Entramados farmacológicos

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias

Abarzúa, Marianella & González, Marta (2012). Salud mental infanto-juvenil como problemática pública. Revista de Psicología, 16(2), 79–95. https://doi.org/10.5354/0719-0581.2007.18523

Arruda-Leal, Arthur (2011). La experiencia de subjetividad como condición y efecto de los saberes y las prácticas psicológicas: producción de subjetividad y psicología. Estudios de Psicología, 32(3), 359–374. https://doi.org/10.1174/021093911797898529

Becerra, Mauricio (2013). La industria farmacéutica y el Ritalín. Recuperado de http://www.elciudadano.cl/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-pop/iframe.php

Béhague, Dominique & Lézé, Samuel (2015). Shaping the modern child: Genealogies and ethnographies of developmental science. Social Science & Medicine, 143, 249–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.09.018

Behrouzan, Orkideh (2016). Prozak Diaries. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Bell, Susan & Figert, Anne (2012). Medicalization and pharmaceuticalization at the intersections: Looking backward, sideways and forward. Social Science & Medicine, 75(5), 775–783. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.04.002

Bergey, Meredith R. & Filipe, Angela M. (2018). ADHD in Global Context: An Introduction. En Meredith Bergey, Angela Filippe, Peter Conrad & IIina Singh (Eds.), Global Perspectives on ADHD: Social Dimensions of Diagnosis and Treatment in Sixteen Countries. (pp. 1-9) Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Bergey, Meredith R.; Filippe, Angela M.; Conrad, Peter & Singh, IIina (Eds.) (2018). Global Perspectives on ADHD: Social Dimensions of Diagnosis and Treatment in Sixteen Countries. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Bernasconi, O. (2015). ¿Qué nos hace ser individuos? Por un enfoque post-humano, pragmático y relacional. Athenea Digital. Revista de Pensamiento e Investigación Social, 15(2), 205–229. https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/athenea.1402

Biehl, João (2007). Will to Live: AIDS Therapies and the Politics of Survival. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Brady, Geraldine (2014). Children and ADHD: seeking control within the constraints of diagnosis. Children & Society, 28(3), 218–230. https://doi.org/10.1111/chso.12069

Callard, Felicity & Fitzgerald, Des (2015). Rethinking Interdisciplinarity across the Social Sciences and Neurosciences. New York: Palgrave Pivot.

Ceder, Simon (2016). Cutting Through Water: Towards a Posthuman Theory of Educational Relationality. Tesis doctoral inédita. Universidad de Lund.

Clarke, Adele; Mamo, Laura; Fosket, Jennifer; Fishman, Jennifer & Shim, Janet (2010). Biomedicalization: Technoscience, Health, and Illness in the U.S. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Connolly, William (2013). The Fragility of Things: Self-Organizing Processes, Neoliberal Fantasies, and Democratic Activism. Durham: Duke University Press.

Conrad, Peter (1975). The discovery of hyperkinesis: Notes on the medicalization of deviant behavior. Social Problems, 23(1), 12–21. https://doi.org/10.2307/799624

Conrad, Peter (1976). Identifying Hyperactive Children: The Medicalization of Deviant Behavior. Lexington, MA.: D.C. Heath.

Conrad, Peter (2005). The shifting engines of medicalization. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(1), 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1177/002214650504600102

Cussins, Charis (1996). Ontological choreography: Agency through objectification in infertility clinics. Social Studies of Science, 26(3), 575–610. https://doi.org/10.1177/030631296026003004

Davis, Joseph (2006). How medicalization lost its way. Society, 43(6), 51–56. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02698486

Deleuze, Gilles (2008). Dos régimenes de locos: Textos y entrevistas (1975-1995). Valencia: Pre-Textos.

Dentone, Camila (2014, noviembre 10). Medicación infantil: nueva arma de control de conducta en los colegios. Diario Uchile. Recuperado de http://radio.uchile.cl/2014/10/11/medicacion-infantil-nueva-arma-de-control-de-conducta-en-los-colegios/

Du Gay, Paul (2008). Organizing conduct, making up people. En Liz McFall, Paul Du Gay & Simon Carter (Eds.), Conduct: Sociology and Social Worlds (pp. 21–53). Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Ecks, Stefan (2013). Eating Drugs: Psychopharmaceutical Pluralism in India. New York: NYU Press.

Emol (2016). Infografía: cómo se clasifican los nuevos grupos socioeconómicos en Chile. Recuperado a partir de https://www.emol.com/noticias/Economia/2016/04/02/796036/Como-se-clasifican-los-grupos-socioeconomicos-en-Chile.html

Fassin, Didier (2011). This is not medicalization. En Geoffrey Hunt, Maitena Milhet & Henri Bergeron (Eds.). Drugs and Culture: Knowledge, Consumption and Policy (pp. 85–93). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Fitzgerald, Des; Rose, Nikolas & Singh, Ilina (2016). Revitalizing sociology: urban life and mental illness between history and the present. The British Journal of Sociology, 67(1), 138-160. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12188

Foucault, Michel (1975/2002). Vigilar y Castigar: Nacimiento de la Prisión. Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI.

Foucault, Michel (2003/2008). El Poder Psiquiátrico: Curso en el Collége de France (1973-1974). Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Frost, Samantha (2016). Biocultural Creatures: Toward a New Theory of the Human. Durham & London: Duke University Press.

Galvez, Karim (1995). El déficit atencional madura con y sin Ritalin. Revista YA. Santiago de Chile.

Gomart, Emilie (2002). Towards generous constraints: freedom and coercion in a French addiction treatment. Sociology of Health & Illness, 24(5), 517–549. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.00307

Gomart, Emilie (2004). Surprised by Methadone: in praise of drug substitution treatment in a French Clinic. Body & Society, 10(2–3), 85–110. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357034X04042937

Greene, Jeremy (2007). Prescribing by Numbers: Drugs and the Definition of Disease. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Guber, Rosana (2011). La etnografía: Método, campo y reflexividad (2da ed.). Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI Editores.

Gusterson, Hugh (1997). Studying up revisited. PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review, 20(1), 114–119.

Hammersley, Martyn & Atkinson, Paul (2007). Ethnography: Principles in Practice (3ra ed. revisada). London & New York: Routledge.

James, Allison & Prout, Alan (1997). Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood. London: Falmer Press.

Kleinman, Arthur (2012). Medical Anthropology and Mental Health. Five questions for the next fifty years. En Medical Anthropology at the Intersections: Histories, Activisms, and Futures (pp. 116–128). Durham, NC: Duke University Press Books.

Latour, Bruno (2004a). ¿Por qué se ha quedado la crítica sin energía? De los asuntos de hecho a las cuestiones de preocupación. Convergencia. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 35, 1405-1435.

Latour, Bruno (2004b). Politics of Nature: How to Bring the Sciences into Democracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Marchand, Jeffrey (2018). Non-human agency. En Rosi Braidotti & Maria Hlavajova, Posthuman Glossary (pp. 868-876). London, New York: Bloomsbury.

Martin, Emily (2006). The pharmaceutical person. BioSocieties, 1(3), 273–287. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1745855206003012

Martin, Emily (2009). Bipolar Expeditions: Mania and Depression in American Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Mayes, Rick; Bagwell, Catherine & Erkulwater, Jennifer (2009). Medicating children: ADHD and pediatric mental health. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Meloni, Maurizio; Williams, Simon & Martin, Paul (2016). The biosocial: sociological themes and issues. The Sociological Review Monographs, 64(1), 7-25. https://doi.org/10.1002/2059-7932.12010

Mol, Annemarie (2002). The Body Multiple: Ontology in Medical Practice. Durham: Duke University Press.

Nye, Robert (2003). The evolution of the concept of medicalization in the late twentieth century. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 39(2), 115–129. https://doi.org/10.1002/jhbs.10108

Parens, Erik & Johnston, Josephine (2009). Facts, values, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an update on the controversies. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 3(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/1753-2000-3-1

Prout, Alan (2005). The Future of childhood. London: Routledge/Falmer.

Prout, Alan (2011). Taking a Step Away from Modernity: reconsidering the new sociology of childhood. Global Studies of Childhood, 1(1), 4. https://doi.org/10.2304/gsch.2011.1.1.4

Rafalovich, Adam (2013). Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder as the medicalization of childhood: challenges from and for Sociology. Sociology Compass, 7(5), 343–354. https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12034

Rojas Navarro, Sebastián & Vrecko, Scott (2017). Pharmaceutical entanglements: An analysis of the multiple determinants of ADHD medication effects in a Chilean school. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 12 (sup1). https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1080/17482631.2017.1298268

Rojas Navarro, Sebastián; Rojas, Patricio & Peña, Mónica (2018). From problematic children to problematic diagnosis: The paradoxical trajectories of ADHD in Chile. En Meredith R. Bergey, Angela M. Filipe, Peter Conrad & Ilina Singh (Eds.), Global Perspectives on ADHD: Social Dimensions of Diagnosis and Treatment in 16 Countries (pp. 310-331) Johns Hopkins University Press.

Rose, Nikolas (2007a). Beyond medicalisation. Lancet, 369(9562), 700–702. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60319-5

Rose, Nikolas (2007b). Genomic susceptibility as an emergent form of life? Genetic testing, identity, and the remit of medicine. En Regula Valérie Burri & Joseph Dumit, (Eds.), Biomedicine as Culture: Instrumental Practices, Technoscientific Knowledge, and New Modes of Life (pp. 141-150). New York & London: Routledge

Rose, Nikolas (2013). The Human Sciences in a Biological Age. Theory, Culture & Society, 30(1), 3–34. https://doi.org/10.1177/0263276412456569

Savransky, Martin (2014). Of recalcitrant subjects. Culture, Theory and Critique, 55(1), 96–113. https://doi.org/10.1080/14735784.2013.821767

Serres, Michel (1982/1995). Genesis. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Singh, Ilina (2011). A disorder of anger and aggression: Children’s perspectives on attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the UK. Social Science & Medicine, 73(6), 889–896. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.03.049

Todd, Sharon (2003). Learning from the Other: Levinas, Psychoanalysis, and Ethical Possibilities in Education. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Van der Geest, Sjaak (1996). Grasping the children’s point of view? An anthropological reflection. En Patricia Bush, Deanna Trakas, Emilio Sanz, Rolf Wirsing, Tuula Vaskilampl & Alan Prout (Eds.), Children, Medicines, and Culture (pp. 337-346). New York: The Haworth Press.

Wilens, Timothy; Adler, Lenard; Adams, Jill; Sgambati, Stephanie; Rotrosen, John; Sawtelle, Robert; Utzinger, Linsey & Fusillo, Steven (2008). Misuse and diversion of stimulants prescribed for ADHD: a systematic review of the literature. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(1), 21-31. https://doi.org/10.1097/chi.0b013e31815a56f1

Métricas de artículo

Cargando métricas ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
Copyright (c) 2019 Sebastian Rojas Navarro, Patricio Rojas