«Deberías adelgazar, te lo digo porque te quiero»: reflexiones autoetnográficas sobre la gordura

Nina Navajas-Pertegás

Resumen

La reciente construcción de una epidemia de obesidad global favorece que —además de ser estéticamente deseable— la delgadez se considere autoevidencia del estado de salud del individuo y marca de moralidad. En esta autoetnografía reflexiono sobre mi vivencia de ser gorda desde la infancia hasta la adultez, desde un enfoque sociológico feminista. La imposición cultural de la delgadez y la gordofobia alimentaron sentimientos de incapacidad, inadecuación corporal y sufrimiento psicológico que promovieron conductas alimentarias problemáticas. Mi argumento es que la guerra contra la obesidad opera en nombre de la salud, pero produce una renuncia significativa al bienestar físico y psicológico en aras de la alcanzar la delgadez.

Palabras clave

Gordofobia; Autoetnografía; Salud; Discriminación; Obesidad

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias

Andreyeva, Tatiana; Puhl, Rebecca M. & Brownell, Kelly D. (2008). Changes in Perceived Weight Discrimination Among Americans, 1995–1996 Through 2004–2006. Obesity, 16(5), 1129-34. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2008.35

Bacon, Linda & Aphramor, Lucy. (2011). Weight science: Evaluating the evidence for a paradigm shift. Nutrition Journal, 10(1), Art. 9. (s.p. ). https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-10-9

Bordo, Susan. (1993/1995). Unbearable weight: Feminism, Western culture, and the body. University of California Press.

Bourdieu, Pierre. (1998/2000). La dominación masculina. Anagrama.

Calogero, Rachel M.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Mensinger, Janell L.; Meadows, Angela & Daníelsdóttir, Sigrun. (2019). Recognizing the Fundamental Right to be Fat: A Weight-Inclusive Approach to Size Acceptance and Healing From Sizeism. Women and Therapy, 42(1-2), 22-44. https://doi.org/10.1080/02703149.2018.1524067

Campos, Paul; Saguy, Abigail; Ernsberger, Paul; Oliver, Eric & Gaesser, Glenn. (2006). The epidemiology of overweight and obesity: public health crisis or moral panic?. International Journal of Epidemiology, 35(1), 55-60. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyi254

Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Drapeau, Vicky; Hetherington, Marion; Lemieux, Simone; Provencher, Véronique & Tremblay, Angelo. (2007). Psychobiological effects observed in obese men experiencing body weight loss plateau. Depression and Anxiety, 24(7), 518-21. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20264

Chrisler, Joan C. (2012). “Why Can’t You Control Yourself?” Fat Should Be a Feminist Issue. Sex Roles, 66(9-10), 608-616. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-011-0095-1

Contrera, Laura. (2016). Cuerpos sin patrones, carne indisciplinada. Apuntes para una revuelta gorda contra la policía de la normalidad corporal. En Laura Contrera & Nicolás Cuello (Comps.), Cuerpos sin patrones: resistencias desde las geografías desmesuradas de la carne (pp. 23-33). Editorial Madreselva.

Contreras, Jesús. (2005). La obesidad: una perspectiva sociocultural. Zainak. Cuadernos de Antropología-Etnografía, 27, 31-52. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=2365503

Cuello. Nicolás. (2016). ¿Podemos lxs gordxs hablar?: activismo, imaginación y resistencia desde las geografías desmesuradas de la carne. En Laura Contrera & Nicolás Cuello (Comps.), Cuerpos sin patrones: resistencias desde las geografías desmesuradas de la carne (pp. 37-68). Editorial Madreselva.

Drummond, Murray J. N. (2002). Men, body image, and eating disorders. International Journal of Men’s Health, 1(1), 89-103. https://doi.org/10.3149/jmh.0101.89

Elias, Ana Sofia & Gill, Rosalind. (2014). ‘Awaken your incredible’: Love your body discourses and postfeminist contradictions. International Journal of Media y Cultural Politics, 10(2), 179-88. https://doi.org/10.1386/macp. 10.2.179_1

Ellis, Carolyn & Bochner, Arthur P. (1996). Talking over ethnography. En Carolyn Ellis & Arthur Bochner (Eds.) Composing ethnography: Alternative forms of qualitative writing (pp. 13-45). Rowman Altamira.

Ellis, Carolyn; Adams, Tony E. & Bochner, Arthur P. (2015). Autoetnografía: un panorama. Astrolabio, 14, 249-73. https://revistas.unc.edu.ar/index.php/astrolabio/article/view/11626

Esteban, Mari Luz. (2004). Antropología encarnada. Antropología desde una misma. Papeles del CEIC, 12, 1-21. https://ojs.ehu.eus/index.php/papelesCEIC/article/view/12093/0

Featherstone, Mike. (1991). The Body in Consumer Culture. En Mike Featherstone, Mike Hepworth & Bryan Turner (Eds.), The Body: Social Process and Cultural Theory. SAGE.

Foucault, Michel. (1981/2008). Tecnologías del yo y otros textos afines. Paidós.

Foucault, Michel. (1994). Two lectures. En Michael Kelly (Ed.), Critique and power: recasting the Foucault/Habermas debate (pp. 17–46). MIT Press.

Gailey, Jeannine. (2014). The Hyper(in)visible Fat Woman. Weight and Gender Discourse in Contemporary Society. Palgrave Macmillan.

Gard, Michael (2011). The End of the Obesity Epidemic. Abingdon: Routledge.

Garfinkel, Paul E.; Garner, David M.; Kaplan, Allan S.; Rodin, Gary & Kennedy, Sidney. (1983). Differential diagnosis of emotional disorders that cause weight loss. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 129(9), 939-45. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/6367916/?tool=EBI

Goffman, Erving. (1963/2006). Estigma: la identidad deteriorada. Amorrortu.

Harjunen, Hannele. (2016). Neoliberal bodies and the gendered fat body. Routledge.

Harrison, Christy. (2019). Anti-Diet. Reclaim Your Time, Money, Well-Being and happiness Through Intuitive Eating. Yellow Kite.

Hunger, Jeffrey M.; Dodd, Dorian R. & Smith, April R. (2020). Weight discrimination, anticipated weight stigma, and disordered eating. Eating Behaviors, 37(april), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2020.101383

Inkwood Research. (2017). Europe Weight Loss Diet & Weight Management MARKET FORECAST 2017-2025. https://www.inkwoodresearch.com/reports/europe-weight-loss-diet-weight-management-market/

Jones, Meredith. (2006). Makeover Culture. Landscapes of Cosmetic Surgery. Tesis Doctoral inédita. University of Western Sydney. https://researchdirect.westernsydney.edu.au/islandora/object/uws:3648

Lee, Jennifer. (2020). “You will face discrimination”: Fatness, motherhood, and the medical profession. Fat Studies, 9(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/21604851.2019.1595289

Lee, Jenny. A. & Pausé, Cat J. (2016). Stigma in practice: Barriers to health for fat women. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 11-21. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.02063

Lewis, Sophie; Thomas, Samantha L.; Warwick Blood, R.; Castle, David J.; Hyde, Jim & Komesaroff, Paul A. (2011). How do obese individuals perceive and respond to the different types of obesity stigma that they encounter in their daily lives? A qualitative study. Social Science and Medicine, 73(9), 1349-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.08.021

Monaghan, Lee. F. (2008). Men and the war on obesity. Routledge.

Morales, Cristina. (2018). Lectura fácil. Editorial Anagrama. Ed. Kindle.

Murray, Samantha. (2008/2016). The ‘fat’ female body. Palgrave MacMillan.

Navajas-Pertegás, Nina. (2016). «¡Qué guapa estarías si te quitases quince kilos!»: reflexiones en torno a los discursos neoliberales de ‘lo bello’ y ‘lo sano’ desde una mirada feminista. Tesina de Máster inédita. Universitat de València.

Navajas-Pertegás, Nina. (2019). ‘Lo primero es adelgazar’: una autoetnografía sobre gordofobia en el contexto sanitario. En Marcela Jabbaz, Juan A. Rodríguez-del-Pino & Nina Navajas-Pertegás (Eds.), Miradas sociológicas de género, ¿sin barreras, cerraduras ni cerrojos? (pp. 13-24). Icaria.

Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Bauer, Katherine W.; Friend, Sarah; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary & Berge, Jerica M. (2010). Family weight talk and dieting: How much do they matter for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors in adolescent girls?. Journal of Adolescent Health, 47(3), 270-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.02.001

Nichter, Mimi. (2009). Fat talk. What Girls and Their Parents Say about Dieting. Harvard University Press.

Organización Mundial de la Salud. (2020). Obesidad y sobrepeso. https://www.who.int/es/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight

Penny, Helen & Haddock, Geoffrey. (2007). Anti-fat prejudice among children: The “mere proximity” effect in 5-10 year olds. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43(4), 678-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp. 2006.07.002

Petersen, Alan, & Lupton, Deborah. (1996). The new public health: Health and self in the age of risk. Sage Publications.

Puhl, Rebecca & Brownell, Kelly D. (2001). Bias, discrimination, and obesity. Obesity Research, 9(12), 788-805. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2001.108

Ratcliffe, Denise & Ellison, Nell. (2015). Obesity and internalized weight stigma: A formulation model for an emerging psychological problem. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 43(2), 239-52. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465813000763

Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P. ; Holt, Kate E. & Finemore, Jennifer. (2003). A biopsychosocial model for understanding body image and body change strategies among children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 24(4), 475-495. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973(03)00070-4

Ringrose, Jessica & Renold, Emma. (2010). Normative cruelties and gender deviants: The performative effects of bully discourses for girls and boys in school. British Educational Research Journal, 36(4), 573-96. https://doi.org/10.1080/01411920903018117

Rubino, Francesco; Puhl, Rebecca M.; Cummings, David E.; Eckel, Robert H.; Ryan, Donna H.; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.; Nadglowski, Joe; Ramos Salas, Ximena; Schauer, Phillip R.; Twenefour, Douglas; Apovian, Caroline M.; Aronne, Louis J.; Batterham, Rachel L.; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolph; Boza, Camilo; Busetto, Luca; Dicker, Dror; De Groot, Mary; Eisenberg, Daniel; Flint, Stuart W.… (2020). Joint international consensus statement for ending stigma of obesity. Nature Medicine, marzo, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0803-x

Sibilia, Paula. (2007). Pureza y sacrificio: nuevos ascetismos por el “cuerpo perfecto”. Artefacto: Pensamientos Sobre la Técnica, 6, 38-44.

Widdows, Heather. (2018). Perfect Me. Beauty as an Ethical Ideal. Princeton University Press.

Winch, Alison. (2013). Girlfriends and Postfeminist Sisterhood. Palgrave Macmillan.

Métricas de artículo

Cargando métricas ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
Copyright (c) 2020 Nina Navajas-Pertegás